Commands & groups#

Drop-in replacement#

Click Extra aims to be a drop-in replacement for Click. The vast majority of Click Extra’s decorators, functions and classes are direct proxies of their Click counterparts. This means that you can replace, in your code, imports of the click namespace by click_extra and it will work as expected.

Here is for instance the canonical click example with all original imports replaced with click_extra:

from click_extra import command, echo, option

@command
@option("--count", default=1, help="Number of greetings.")
@option("--name", prompt="Your name", help="The person to greet.")
def hello(count, name):
    """Simple program that greets NAME for a total of COUNT times."""
    for _ in range(count):
        echo(f"Hello, {name}!")

As you can see the result does not deviates from the original Click-based output:

$ hello --help
Usage: hello [OPTIONS]

  Simple program that greets NAME for a total of COUNT times.

Options:
  --count INTEGER  Number of greetings.
  --name TEXT      The person to greet.
  --help           Show this message and exit.

Note

Click and Cloup inheritance

At the module level, click_extra imports all elements from click.*, then all elements from the cloup.* namespace.

Which means all elements not redefined by Click Extra fallback to Cloup. And if Cloup itself does not redefine them, they fallback to Click.

For example:

  • click_extra.echo is a direct proxy to click.echo because Cloup does not re-implement an echo helper.

  • On the other hand, @click_extra.option is a proxy of @cloup.option, because Cloup adds the possibility for options to be grouped.

  • @click_extra.timer is not a proxy of anything, because it is a new decorator implemented by Click Extra.

  • As for @click_extra.extra_version_option, it is a re-implementation of @click.version_option. Because it adds new features and breaks the original API, it was prefixed with extra_ to become its own thing. And @click_extra.version_option still proxy the original from Click.

Here are few other examples on how Click Extra proxies the main elements from Click and Cloup:

Click Extra element

Target

Click’s original

@click_extra.command

@cloup.command

@click.command

@click_extra.group

@cloup.group

@click.group

@click_extra.argument

@cloup.argument

@click.argument

@click_extra.option

@cloup.option

@click.option

@click_extra.option_group

@cloup.option_group

Not implemented

@click_extra.pass_context

@click.pass_context

@click.pass_context

@click_extra.version_option

@click.version_option

@click.version_option

@click_extra.extra_version_option

Itself

@click.version_option

@click_extra.help_option

Itself

@click.help_option

@click_extra.timer_option

Itself

Not implemented

click_extra.Argument

cloup.Argument

click.Argument

click_extra.Command

cloup.Command

click.Command

click_extra.Group

cloup.Group

click.Group

click_extra.HelpFormatter

cloup.HelpFormatter

click.HelpFormatter

click_extra.HelpTheme

cloup.HelpThene

Not implemented

click_extra.Option

cloup.Option

click.Option

click_extra.ExtraVersionOption

Itself

Not implemented

click_extra.Style

cloup.Style

Not implemented

click_extra.echo

click.echo

click.echo

click_extra.ParameterSource

click.core.ParameterSource

click.core.ParameterSource

You can inspect the implementation details by looking at:

Extra variants#

Now if you want to benefit from all the wonderful features of Click Extra, you have to use the extra-prefixed variants:

Original

Extra variant

@click.command

@click_extra.extra_command

@click.group

@click_extra.extra_group

click.Command

click_extra.ExtraCommand

click.Group

click_extra.ExtraGroup

click.Context

click_extra.ExtraContext

click.Option

click_extra.ExtraOption

@click.version_option

@click_extra.extra_version_option

click.testing.CliRunner

click_extra.ExtraCliRunner

You can see how to use some of these extra variants in the tutorial.

Default options#

The @extra_command and @extra_group decorators are pre-configured with a set of default options.

Remove default options#

You can remove all default options by resetting the params argument to None:

from click_extra import extra_command

@extra_command(params=None)
def bare_cli():
   pass

Which results in:

$ bare-cli --help
Usage: bare-cli [OPTIONS]

Options:
  -h, --help  Show this message and exit.

As you can see, all options are stripped out, but the colouring and formatting of the help message is preserved.

Change default options#

To override the default options, you can provide the params= argument to the command. But note how we use classes instead of option decorators:

from click_extra import extra_command, ConfigOption, VerbosityOption

@extra_command(
   params=[
      ConfigOption(default="ex.yml"),
      VerbosityOption(default="DEBUG"),
   ]
)
def cli():
   pass

And now you get:

$ cli --help
debug: Set <Logger click_extra (DEBUG)> to DEBUG.
debug: Set <RootLogger root (DEBUG)> to DEBUG.
Usage: cli [OPTIONS]

Options:
  -C, --config CONFIG_PATH  Location of the configuration file. Supports glob
                            pattern of local path and remote URL.  [default:
                            ex.yml]
  -v, --verbosity LEVEL     Either CRITICAL, ERROR, WARNING, INFO, DEBUG.
                            [default: DEBUG]
  -h, --help                Show this message and exit.
debug: Reset <RootLogger root (DEBUG)> to WARNING.
debug: Reset <Logger click_extra (DEBUG)> to WARNING.

This let you replace the preset options by your own set, tweak their order and fine-tune their defaults.

Caution

Duplicate options

If you try to add option decorators to a command which already have them by default, you will end up with duplicate entries (as seen in issue {issue}`232`):

from click_extra import extra_command, extra_version_option

@extra_command
@extra_version_option(version="0.1")
def cli():
   pass

See how the --version option gets duplicated at the end:

$ cli --help
Usage: cli [OPTIONS]

Options:
  --time / --no-time        Measure and print elapsed execution time.  [default:
                            no-time]
  --color, --ansi / --no-color, --no-ansi
                            Strip out all colors and all ANSI codes from output.
                            [default: color]
  -C, --config CONFIG_PATH  Location of the configuration file. Supports glob
                            pattern of local path and remote URL.  [default:
                            ~/.config/cli/*.{toml,yaml,yml,json,ini,xml}]
  --show-params             Show all CLI parameters, their provenance, defaults
                            and value, then exit.
  -v, --verbosity LEVEL     Either CRITICAL, ERROR, WARNING, INFO, DEBUG.
                            [default: WARNING]
  --version                 Show the version and exit.
  -h, --help                Show this message and exit.
  --version                 Show the version and exit.

This is by design: decorators are cumulative, to allow you to add your own options to the preset of @extra_command and @extra_group.

Option order#

Notice how the options above are ordered in the help message.

The default behavior of @extra_command (and its derivates decorators) is to order options in the way they are provided to the params= argument of the decorator. Then adds to that list the additional option decorators positioned after the @extra_command decorator.

After that, there is a final sorting step applied to options. This is done by the extra_option_at_end option, which is True by default.

Option’s defaults#

Because Click Extra commands and groups inherits from Click, you can override the defaults the way Click allows you to. Here is a reminder on how to do it.

For example, the --verbosity option defaults to the WARNING level. Now we’d like to change this default to INFO.

If you manage your own --verbosity option, you can pass the default argument to its decorator like we did above:

from click_extra import command, verbosity_option


@command
@verbosity_option(default="INFO")
def cli():
    pass

This also works in its class form:

from click_extra import command, VerbosityOption


@command(params=[VerbosityOption(default="INFO")])
def cli():
    pass

But you also have the alternative to pass a default_map via the context_settings:

from click_extra import extra_command

@extra_command(context_settings={"default_map": {"verbosity": "INFO"}})
def cli():
   pass

Which results in [default: INFO] being featured in the help message:

$ cli --help
Usage: cli [OPTIONS]

Options:
  --time / --no-time        Measure and print elapsed execution time.  [default:
                            no-time]
  --color, --ansi / --no-color, --no-ansi
                            Strip out all colors and all ANSI codes from output.
                            [default: color]
  -C, --config CONFIG_PATH  Location of the configuration file. Supports glob
                            pattern of local path and remote URL.  [default:
                            ~/.config/cli/*.{toml,yaml,yml,json,ini,xml}]
  --show-params             Show all CLI parameters, their provenance, defaults
                            and value, then exit.
  -v, --verbosity LEVEL     Either CRITICAL, ERROR, WARNING, INFO, DEBUG.
                            [default: INFO]
  --version                 Show the version and exit.
  -h, --help                Show this message and exit.

Tip

The advantage of the context_settings method we demonstrated last, is that it let you change the default of the --verbosity option provided by Click Extra, without having to re-list the whole set of default options.

Third-party commands composition#

Click Extra is capable of composing with existing Click CLI in various situation.

Wrap other commands#

Click allows you to build up a hierarchy of command and subcommands. Click Extra inherits this behavior, which means we are free to assemble multiple third-party subcommands into a top-level one.

For this example, let’s imagine you are working for an operation team that is relying daily on a couple of CLIs. Like dbt to manage your data workflows, and aws-sam-cli to deploy them in the cloud.

For some practical reasons, you’d like to wrap all these commands into a big one. This is how to do it.

Note

Here is how I initialized this example on my machine:

$ git clone https://github.com/kdeldycke/click-extra
(...)

$ cd click-extra
(...)

$ poetry install
(...)

$ poetry run python -m pip install dbt-core
(...)

$ poetry run python -m pip install aws-sam-cli
(...)

That way I had the latest Click Extra, dbt and aws-sam-cli installed in the same virtual environment:

$ poetry run dbt --version
Core:
  - installed: 1.6.1
  - latest:    1.6.2 - Update available!

  Your version of dbt-core is out of date!
  You can find instructions for upgrading here:
  https://docs.getdbt.com/docs/installation

Plugins:
$ poetry run sam --version
SAM CLI, version 1.97.0

Once you identified the entry points of each commands, you can easily wrap them into a top-level Click Extra CLI. Here is for instance the content of a wrap.py script:

from click_extra import extra_group

from samcli.cli.main import cli as sam_cli
from dbt.cli.main import cli as dbt_cli


@extra_group
def main():
    pass


main.add_command(cmd=sam_cli, name="aws_sam")
main.add_command(cmd=dbt_cli, name="dbt")


if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()

And this simple script gets rendered into:

$ poetry run python ./wrap.py
Usage: wrap.py [OPTIONS] COMMAND [ARGS]...

Options:
  --time / --no-time        Measure and print elapsed execution time.  [default:
                            no-time]
  --color, --ansi / --no-color, --no-ansi
                            Strip out all colors and all ANSI codes from output.
                            [default: color]
  -C, --config CONFIG_PATH  Location of the configuration file. Supports glob
                            pattern of local path and remote URL.  [default:
                            ~/Library/Application
                            Support/wrap.py/*.{toml,yaml,yml,json,ini,xml}]
  --show-params             Show all CLI parameters, their provenance, defaults
                            and value, then exit.
  -v, --verbosity LEVEL     Either CRITICAL, ERROR, WARNING, INFO, DEBUG.
                            [default: WARNING]
  --version                 Show the version and exit.
  -h, --help                Show this message and exit.

Commands:
  aws_sam  AWS Serverless Application Model (SAM) CLI
  dbt      An ELT tool for managing your SQL transformations and data models.

Here you can see that the top-level CLI gets all the default options and behavior (including coloring) of @extra_group. But it also made available the standalone aws_sam and dbt CLI as standard subcommands.

And they are perfectly functional as-is.

You can compare the output of the aws_sam subcommand with its original one:

$ poetry run python ./wrap.py aws_sam --help
Usage: wrap.py aws_sam [OPTIONS] COMMAND [ARGS]...

  AWS Serverless Application Model (SAM) CLI

  The AWS Serverless Application Model Command Line Interface (AWS SAM CLI) is
  a command line tool that you can use with AWS SAM templates and supported
  third-party integrations to build and run your serverless applications.

  Learn more: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/serverless-application-model/

Commands:

  Learn:
    docs NEW!           Launch the AWS SAM CLI documentation in a browser.

  Create an App:
    init                Initialize an AWS SAM application.

  Develop your App:
    build               Build your AWS serverless function code.
    local               Run your AWS serverless function locally.
    validate            Validate an AWS SAM template.
    sync NEW!           Sync an AWS SAM project to AWS.
    remote NEW!         Invoke or send an event to cloud resources in your AWS
                        Cloudformation stack.

  Deploy your App:
    package             Package an AWS SAM application.
    deploy              Deploy an AWS SAM application.

  Monitor your App:
    logs                Fetch AWS Cloudwatch logs for AWS Lambda Functions or
                        Cloudwatch Log groups.
    traces              Fetch AWS X-Ray traces.

  And More:
    list NEW!           Fetch the state of your AWS serverless application.
    delete              Delete an AWS SAM application and the artifacts created
                        by sam deploy.
    pipeline            Manage the continuous delivery of your AWS serverless
                        application.
    publish             Publish a packaged AWS SAM template to AWS Serverless
                        Application Repository for easy sharing.

Options:

    --beta-features / --no-beta-features
                                    Enable/Disable beta features.
    --debug                         Turn on debug logging to print debug message
                                    generated by AWS SAM CLI and display
                                    timestamps.
    --version                       Show the version and exit.
    --info                          Show system and dependencies information.
    -h, --help                      Show this message and exit.

Examples:

    Get Started:        $wrap.py aws_sam init
$ poetry run sam --help
Usage: sam [OPTIONS] COMMAND [ARGS]...

  AWS Serverless Application Model (SAM) CLI

  The AWS Serverless Application Model Command Line Interface (AWS SAM CLI) is
  a command line tool that you can use with AWS SAM templates and supported
  third-party integrations to build and run your serverless applications.

  Learn more: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/serverless-application-model/

Commands:

  Learn:
    docs NEW!           Launch the AWS SAM CLI documentation in a browser.

  Create an App:
    init                Initialize an AWS SAM application.

  Develop your App:
    build               Build your AWS serverless function code.
    local               Run your AWS serverless function locally.
    validate            Validate an AWS SAM template.
    sync NEW!           Sync an AWS SAM project to AWS.
    remote NEW!         Invoke or send an event to cloud resources in your AWS
                        Cloudformation stack.

  Deploy your App:
    package             Package an AWS SAM application.
    deploy              Deploy an AWS SAM application.

  Monitor your App:
    logs                Fetch AWS Cloudwatch logs for AWS Lambda Functions or
                        Cloudwatch Log groups.
    traces              Fetch AWS X-Ray traces.

  And More:
    list NEW!           Fetch the state of your AWS serverless application.
    delete              Delete an AWS SAM application and the artifacts created
                        by sam deploy.
    pipeline            Manage the continuous delivery of your AWS serverless
                        application.
    publish             Publish a packaged AWS SAM template to AWS Serverless
                        Application Repository for easy sharing.

Options:

    --beta-features / --no-beta-features
                                    Enable/Disable beta features.
    --debug                         Turn on debug logging to print debug message
                                    generated by AWS SAM CLI and display
                                    timestamps.
    --version                       Show the version and exit.
    --info                          Show system and dependencies information.
    -h, --help                      Show this message and exit.

Examples:

    Get Started:        $sam init

Here is the highlighted differences to make them even more obvious:

@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
-$ poetry run python ./wrap.py aws_sam --help
-Usage: wrap.py aws_sam [OPTIONS] COMMAND [ARGS]...
+$ poetry run sam --help
+Usage: sam [OPTIONS] COMMAND [ARGS]...

   AWS Serverless Application Model (SAM) CLI

@@ -56,4 +56,4 @@

 Examples:

-    Get Started:        $wrap.py aws_sam init
+    Get Started:        $sam init

Now that all commands are under the same umbrella, there is no limit to your imagination!

Important

This might looks janky, but this franken-CLI might be a great way to solve practical problems in your situation.

You can augment them with your custom glue code. Or maybe mashing them up will simplify the re-distribution of these CLIs on your production machines. Or control their common dependencies. Or freeze their versions. Or hard-code some parameters. Or apply monkey-patches. Or chain these commands to create new kind of automation…

There is a miriad of possibilities. If you have some other examples in the same vein, please share them in an issue or even directly via a PR. I’d love to complement this documentation with creative use-cases.

click_extra.commands API#

classDiagram Command <|-- ExtraCommand Context <|-- ExtraContext ExtraCommand <|-- ExtraGroup ExtraHelpColorsMixin <|-- ExtraCommand Group <|-- ExtraGroup

Wraps vanilla Click and Cloup commands with extra features.

Our flavor of commands, groups and context are all subclasses of their vanilla counterparts, but are pre-configured with good and common defaults. You can still leverage the mixins in here to build up your own custom variants.

click_extra.commands.patched_exit(self, code=0)[source]#

Exits the application with a given exit code.

Forces the context to close before exiting, so callbacks attached to parameters will be called to clean up their state. This is not important in normal CLI execution as the Python process will just be destroyed. But it will lead to leaky states in unitttests. :rtype: NoReturn

See also

This fix has been proposed upstream to Click.

class click_extra.commands.ExtraContext(*args, meta=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Bases: Context

Like cloup._context.Context, but with the ability to populate the context’s meta property at instantiation.

Also inherits color property from parent context. And sets it to True for parentless contexts at instantiatiom, so we can always have colorized output.

Todo

Propose addition of meta keyword upstream to Click.

Like parent’s context but with an extra meta keyword-argument.

Also force color property default to True if not provided by user and this context has no parent.

formatter_class#

Use our own formatter to colorize the help screen.

alias of HelpExtraFormatter

property color: bool | None#

Overrides Context.color to allow inheritance from parent context.

Returns the color setting of the parent context if it exists and the color is not set on the current context.

click_extra.commands.default_extra_params()[source]#

Default additional options added to extra_command and extra_group.

Caution

The order of options has been carefully crafted to handle subtle edge-cases and avoid leaky states in unittests.

You can still override this hard-coded order for easthetic reasons and it should be fine. Your end-users are unlikely to be affected by these sneaky bugs, as the CLI context is going to be naturraly reset after each invocation (which is not the case in unitests).

  1. --time / --no-time

    Hint

    --time is placed at the top so all other options can be timed.

  2. -C, --config CONFIG_PATH

    Attention

    --config is at the top so it can have a direct influence on the default behavior and value of the other options.

  3. --color, --ansi / --no-color, --no-ansi

  4. --show-params

  5. -v, --verbosity LEVEL

  6. --version

  7. -h, --help

Todo

For bullet-proof handling of edge-cases, we should probably add an indirection layer to have the processing order of options (the one below) different from the presentation order of options in the help screen.

This is probably something that has been requested in {issue}`544`.

Important

Sensitivity to order still remains to be proven. With the code of Click Extra and its dependencies moving fast, there is a non-zero chance that all the options are now sound enough to be re-ordered in a more natural way.

class click_extra.commands.ExtraCommand(*args, version=None, extra_option_at_end=True, populate_auto_envvars=True, **kwargs)[source]#

Bases: ExtraHelpColorsMixin, Command

Like cloup.command, with sane defaults and extra help screen colorization.

List of extra parameters:

Parameters:
  • version (str | None) – allows a version string to be set directly on the command. Will be passed to the first instance of ExtraVersionOption parameter attached to the command.

  • extra_option_at_end (bool) – reorders all parameters attached to the command, by moving all instances of ExtraOption at the end of the parameter list. The original order of the options is preserved among themselves.

  • populate_auto_envvars (bool) – forces all parameters to have their auto-generated environment variables registered. This address the shortcoming of click which only evaluates them dynamiccaly. By forcing their registration, the auto-generated environment variables gets displayed in the help screen, fixing click#2483 issue.

By default, these Click context settings are applied:

Additionally, these Cloup context settings are set:

Click Extra also adds its own context_settings:

  • show_choices = None (Click Extra feature)

    If set to True or False, will force that value on all options, so we can globally show or hide choices when prompting a user for input. Only makes sense for options whose prompt property is set.

    Defaults to None, which will leave all options untouched, and let them decide of their own show_choices setting.

  • show_envvar = None (Click Extra feature)

    If set to True or False, will force that value on all options, so we can globally enable or disable the display of environment variables in help screen.

    Defaults to None, which will leave all options untouched, and let them decide of their own show_envvar setting. The rationale being that discoverability of environment variables is enabled by the --show-params option, which is active by default on extra commands. So there is no need to surcharge the help screen.

    This addresses the click#2313 issue.

To override these defaults, you can pass your own settings with the context_settings parameter:

@extra_command(
    context_settings={
        "show_default": False,
        ...
    }
)
context_class#

alias of ExtraContext

main(*args, **kwargs)[source]#

Pre-invocation step that is instantiating the context, then call invoke() within it.

During context instantiation, each option’s callbacks are called. Beware that these might break the execution flow (like --help or --version).

make_context(info_name, args, parent=None, **extra)[source]#

Intercept the call to the original click.core.BaseCommand.make_context so we can keep a copy of the raw, pre-parsed arguments provided to the CLI.

The result are passed to our own ExtraContext constructor which is able to initialize the context’s meta property under our own click_extra.raw_args entry. This will be used in ShowParamsOption.print_params() to print the table of parameters fed to the CLI. :rtype: Any

See also

This workaround is being discussed upstream in click#1279.

invoke(ctx)[source]#

Main execution of the command, just after the context has been instantiated in main().

Return type:

Any

class click_extra.commands.ExtraGroup(*args, version=None, extra_option_at_end=True, populate_auto_envvars=True, **kwargs)[source]#

Bases: ExtraCommand, Group

Like``cloup.Group``, with sane defaults and extra help screen colorization.

List of extra parameters:

Parameters:
  • version (str | None) – allows a version string to be set directly on the command. Will be passed to the first instance of ExtraVersionOption parameter attached to the command.

  • extra_option_at_end (bool) –

    reorders all parameters attached to the command, by moving all instances of ExtraOption at the end of the parameter list. The original order of the options is preserved among themselves.

  • populate_auto_envvars (bool) –

    forces all parameters to have their auto-generated environment variables registered. This address the shortcoming of click which only evaluates them dynamiccaly. By forcing their registration, the auto-generated environment variables gets displayed in the help screen, fixing click#2483 issue.

By default, these Click context settings are applied:

Additionally, these Cloup context settings are set:

Click Extra also adds its own context_settings:

  • show_choices = None (Click Extra feature)

    If set to True or False, will force that value on all options, so we can globally show or hide choices when prompting a user for input. Only makes sense for options whose prompt property is set.

    Defaults to None, which will leave all options untouched, and let them decide of their own show_choices setting.

  • show_envvar = None (Click Extra feature)

    If set to True or False, will force that value on all options, so we can globally enable or disable the display of environment variables in help screen.

    Defaults to None, which will leave all options untouched, and let them decide of their own show_envvar setting. The rationale being that discoverability of environment variables is enabled by the --show-params option, which is active by default on extra commands. So there is no need to surcharge the help screen.

    This addresses the click#2313 issue.

To override these defaults, you can pass your own settings with the context_settings parameter:

@extra_command(
    context_settings={
        "show_default": False,
        ...
    }
)
command_class#

Makes commands of an ExtraGroup be instances of ExtraCommand.

That way all subcommands created from an ExtraGroup benefits from the same defaults and extra help screen colorization.

See: https://click.palletsprojects.com/en/8.1.x/api/#click.Group.command_class

alias of ExtraCommand

group_class#

Let ExtraGroup produce sub-groups that are also of ExtraGroup type.

See: https://click.palletsprojects.com/en/8.1.x/api/#click.Group.group_class

alias of type